It was in pursuit of this policy that, in 1626, he transferred the seat of war to Prussia: a stranglehold on the Vistula River, he hoped, would bring Poland to its knees. Immigrants, such as Dutchman Louis de Geer, who founded the Swedish arms industry, came from Belgium, the Netherlands, England, and Germany and made important contributions to the economy. Charles had also begun a war in Russia in an attempt to put forward his younger son, Charles Philip, for the vacant Russian throne and then, when his armies were deeply committed in Russia, had rashly provoked war with Denmark. The whole reign of Gustavus Adolphus, from 1611, had been time of almost constant war: Sweden fought against Russia in Ingria (1611-1617), against Poland in Livonia (1617-1618 and 1621-1626) and in … Modding. His experience of the feckless and selfish German princes convinced him that such a league could be effective only if it were organized and directed by himself, and military necessity in any case demanded a unified command that could not be directed by anyone other than himself. The motives prompting his intervention have long been a subject of historical controversy. From the time of his birth until his coronation, his upbringing involved many lessons in politics, literature, military science, and physical development, making him physically and intellectually … 96% Upvoted. In the ensuing months Gustavus swept triumphantly through central Germany, systematically consolidating his base areas as he advanced; by Christmas he had established himself at Mainz. Meanwhile, the war with Poland remained largely in abeyance, although in 1617 Gustavus sent an abortive expedition to seize the fortification of Dünamünde outside Riga (in present-day Latvia). Gustav II Adolf's politics in th… An ordinance of 1617 fixed the number of estates in the Riksdag at four (nobles, clergy, burghers, and peasants) and regulated its procedures on a basis that lasted until 1866. The aristocracy found in Gustavus a king favourable to their interests. Both council and Riksdag were identified with the king’s policies, not least because of Gustavus’s brilliant gift for expounding them: his speeches reveal him as a master of debate and an orator of extraordinary eloquence and force. After Gustavus was killed at Lützen (1632), the Swedish Chancellor Oxenstierna financed the Heilbronn League of German Protestants (1633), which broke up after a heavy military defeat at Nördlingen in 1634. Charles IX had intervened in Russia to prevent the Poles from placing their own candidate on the Russian throne; the election of the Russian Michael Romanov in 1613 had ended that danger, and Gustavus continued the struggle with the deliberate intention of annexing as much of Russian territory as possible. During his reign, Sweden became one of the primary military forces in Europe during the Thirty Years' War, helping to determine the political and religious balance of power in Europe. In this improved climate it was possible to undertake measures of sweeping reform. Gustavus Adolphus Battle Song Story Out of the heroic struggles of the Thirty Years' War, which saved for the world the fruit of the sixteenth-century Reformation, there stands forth one gigantic son of the Vikings, the noble Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden. From the time of his birth until his coronation, his upbringing involved many lessons in politics, literature, military science, and physical development, making him physically and intellectually rounded. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. … Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years War mod. Create a second … As the war with Denmark was as good as lost, he set about to end it on the best possible terms. And in the 1620s a thorough reform professionalized local government and placed it securely under the control of the crown. From this moment, full-scale involvement in the German war became simply a question of time. Jun 8, 2017 - Explore Bill Wilks's board "Gustavus Adolphus" on Pinterest. Sadly, Adolphus is killed at the battle of Lutzen in 1632. It thus cut Russia off entirely from the Baltic, thrust it back toward Asia, and postponed its emergence as a major European power until the time of Peter the Great. • La vida y hechos de Estebanillo González, hombre de buen humor, compuesta por él mismo (Antwerp, 1646): The last of the great Spanish Golden Age picaresque novels, this is set against the background of the Thirty Years' War. Until 1629 Gustavus had always to reckon with the danger of a legitimist invasion from Poland and the attempted restoration of the elder Vasa line. By the Truce of Altmark (Sept. 26, 1629), with the aid of French and British mediators, Poland made…. u/Kaj121. He spent much of his life at war. It is thought to have been written by a man in the entourage of Ottavio Piccolomini. For each phase, include the following: Explore the causes; Battles; Important leaders; Results. It was one of the healthiest features of Swedish society during this period that the nobility served the state, prepared to sacrifice even its privileges in the interests of the country. Military History: Aug 17, 2016: Gustavus Adolphus does not die at the Battle of Lutzen. But already he was concerned with the larger question of the danger to German Protestantism entailed by the victorious campaigns of the Habsburg commanders, Johann Tserclaes von Tilly and Albrecht von Wallenstein. He feared Russia’s military and naval potential; he feared that once the country’s position was stabilized, a new tsar might try to make Russia a Baltic maritime power. He was a brilliant leader He was courageous He organized the most modern army of its time Under his leadership, Sweden wins victories. These developments forced Gustavus to reassess the limited and vague plans with which he had embarked on the expedition. Gustav II Adolf (Gustavus II Adolphus; ruled 1611–32) was only 16 years old when his father, Charles IX, died, so the actual leadership passed to the aristocrat Axel Oxenstierna and the council. By annexing Ingria and Kexholm, Sweden came to possess a continuous belt of territory connecting Finland with the Swedish province of Estonia. Moved also by his Protestantism, he declared against the emperor and was supported by an understanding with … By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The whole reign of Gustavus Adolphus, from 1611, had been time of almost constant war: Sweden fought against Russia in Ingria (1611-1617), against Poland in Livonia (1617-1618 and 1621-1626) and in Prussia (1626-1629) and several times against Denmark. The main danger, however, seemed to be Sigismund’s attempts to pursue his claims by fifth-column activities in Sweden and propaganda in Europe. Illustrated with plans, etc‪.‬ Benjamin Chapman. As a military commander, he was responsible for military innovations that marked an epoch in the history of the art of war. The History Learning Site, 25 Mar 2015. During the 17th century Swedish cannons enjoyed an excellent reputation and were sold to the Dutch, British, and French armies. Read Later ; Print. Charles’s rule had been arbitrary and violent; his religious views (he was suspected of leaning toward Calvinism) had involved him in an incessant struggle with the Lutheran church. But from the point of view of his own country, these achievements were less significant than his domestic labours—his extraordinarily wide-ranging creative work in the fields of administrative organization, economic development, and education. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Professor of Modern History, Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland, 1954–73. This, however, did not happen; for the man who had drawn the charter, the chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, became, in fact, the king’s closest collaborator and remained so for the whole of the reign—a great historic partnership in which the temperaments and gifts of each supplemented those of the other. Security, then, was to be achieved by a Protestant league of which he would be patron, military director, and political head. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. discerninghistory.com/2014/05/gustavus-adolphus-thirty-years-war In 1620 he married Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg. He had always insisted that the German Protestant princes must work for their own salvation, and he saw the best hope for their future preservation in the creation of a comprehensive, permanent Corpus Evangelicorum (or Protestant league). 9 Feb 2021. This did not seem a likely outcome in 1630, at which time the Imperialist side did not perceive a significant Swedish threat, and Gustavus Adolphus himself invaded Germany equipped with maps only for a limited war in the north (Roberts, 1992, p. 138). But before he was prepared to commit himself to any Protestant league and undertake a military campaign in Germany, Gustavus required adequate assurance of support. At sixteen he contested three wars, against the Russians, the Danes and the Poles. Sweden emerged unscathed. The war in Russia was much more serious, and it was here that Gustavus, in a succession of difficult and indecisive campaigns, learned the rudiments of warfare. “Lion of the North” Gustavus Adolphus and the Thirty Years’ War: Victories and Downfall – Part II [Read Part I] This is the recounting of the dramatic life of the “The Golden King” and “The Lion of the North” Gustav Adolf, and the Swedish Empire during stormaktstiden – “the Great Power era”. MLA Format. At his death the country was exhausted by constant warfare, the monarchy was generally unpopular, and the accession of a new king seemed to offer the opportunity to extort from the crown guarantees against a recurrence of misgovernment. On 9 December 1594, Gustav II Adolf was born. Gustavus Adolphus captured Merseburg. See more ideas about Gustavus, Thirty years' war, Arms and armour. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Gustavus Adolphus, also known in English as Gustav II Adolf or Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632, and is credited for the rise of Sweden as a great European power. 27 comments. The disastrous defeat (1626) of Christian IV of Denmark, who had intervened in Germany without such an assurance, justified his caution, but it also made Swedish intervention inevitable. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. A Swedish administration was being organized in the occupied areas; Gustavus rewarded his generals and supporters by conferring the conquered lands on them; in some of the treaties he concluded with German princes there was more than a hint that he regarded them as his feudal inferiors. His death came at a moment when it had already begun to appear that the victory he believed to be essential to the stability of Germany and the security of Sweden might be more difficult to achieve than he had imagined. Thus the long-standing constitutional struggle between crown and aristocracy was suspended during his reign, largely because of the personality of the sovereign and the unique collaboration between himself and Oxenstierna. His threat to Nürnberg forced Gustavus to leave Bavaria in order to relieve the city. They already resented Gustavus’s dictatorial methods as well as the Swedish army’s practice of making war support war. In 1621, taking advantage of a Turkish attack upon Poland, Gustavus renewed the war with Sigismund. best. For seven months the Protestant city of Magdeburg, in northern Germany, had been under siege by Catholic forces of the Holy Roman Empire. His intervention in the Thirty Years’ War, at a moment when the armies of the Habsburg emperor and the German princes of the Catholic League controlled almost the whole of Germany, ensured the survival of German Protestantism against the onslaughts of the Counter-Reformation. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. He found himself in an extraordinarily difficult position. It is the aforementioned aspects that … THE THIRTY YEARS’ WAR (1618-1648). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. He enlisted the nobility in the service of the state and thus provided them with numerous economic benefits. The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Print Collection, The New York Public Library. Protestant Europe was slow to appreciate the connection, but as the Protestant cause plunged to disaster in Germany, its leaders increasingly turned their eyes to Gustavus as a possible saviour. It dragged on until ended by the Peace of Stolbova in 1617, by which time it had clearly changed its character. Gustavus Adolphus … Gustavus was the eldest son of Charles IX and his second wife, Christina of Holstein. His capture of Riga was followed by a gradual conquest of Livonia (present-day northern Latvia and southern Estonia). Charles IX had usurped the throne, having ejected his nephew Sigismund III Vasa (who was also king of Poland) in 1599, and the resulting dynastic quarrel involved Sweden and Poland in a war that continued intermittently for 60 years. 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